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Is The Earth Really Flat ?

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The Flat Earth model is the Earth’s shape as a plane or disc. This had been believed by many ancient civilizations (Greece, European, Indian, Chinese, Egyptians) for a few centuries back. By around 330 BC, Plato’s former student Aristotle provided evidence for the sphericity of the Earth. This discovery has shaped the future. Earth was the only planet that wasn’t named after a Greek or Roman god or goddess.
In America, 6.5 million+ people believe in flat Earth that includes high-profile artists and athletes. There’s even a community called ‘The Flat Earth’. The members of the community call themselves ‘The Flat Earthers’. According to the Flat Earth Society’s leadership, its ranks have grown by 200 people (mostly Americans and Britons) per year since 2009. They believe contrary to everything that the human species have learned over the centuries.

THINGS FLAT EARTHERS WANT YOU TO KNOW 

1. The Earth is flat and also the center of the universe.

The Round Earth is Satan’s greatest lie.

2. Water doesn’t stick to a ball —  it falls and only can be stable on flat Earth.

3. Antarctica is like the ice wall that surrounds the flat Earth.

4. The highest authorities (Space agencies, super-rich people, FBI) guard the Antarctic wall, and they make sure no one can reach there.

5. Objects fall because of density and buoyancy.

 6. Tides are simply the water splashing back and forth on flat Earth.

7. Moonlight is cold.

8. Gravity is just an illusion. We are all being brainwashed. Earth is still, while everything moves around.

9. Rivers can’t flow uphill.

The roads are flat. The oceans are mostly flat. Majorities of us have never been to outer space as an astronaut. Let us know the detail about Earth’s geometry through scientific phenomena rather than pseudoscientific beliefs. Science has evolved fine enough to study the stars a million miles away from us without being going there. In the case of our mother planet (Earth), we are attached to the earth.  It is neither invisible nor a million miles away from us.


1. GRAVITY

The force of attraction between any two objects (Planets, Sun, Moon, and else) in the universe because of their masses is called Gravitational force. The force with which any Planet attracts the object toward its center is called the gravity of that planet. Well, for Earth, it is known as Earth’s gravity or only gravity. 

• Falling of object

Flat Earthers discard the notion that an object falls due to gravity. They theorized the falling of an object with density. That is to say, an object falls because that object is relatively less dense than air. It’s similar to that of the sinking of an object inside a liquid — a less dense object relative to liquid will float and vice versa. The theory seems quite promising, however; the only thing that lacks here is the actual concept of density. Density is simply the amount of matter contained within a certain volume. Taking the magnitude and direction of quantities into an account, Physics classifies quantities into two nature viz: Vector quantity, meaning having both magnitude and direction; scalar quantity, meaning having only magnitude but no direction. Density is a scalar quantity, so it’s a legitimate question to ask; why is the object only accelerating downward, not sideways or upward?

Newton’s 2nd law of motion states that the rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the force applied, in essence, force is required for the motion of a body. The theory of gravitation can be mathematically applied to calculate the force exerted by massive bodies like planets to lighter bodies like vehicles. The classical interpretation of gravity can accompany shooting the probes to pluto. Experimentally, an object falls at the same rate in a vacuumed environment, doesn’t matter heavy or light. If the density is actually responsible for the principle governing the falling of an object, then the object must not have to fall in a vacuumed environment — that doesn’t turn to be the case insofar. Moreover, density is not a force.

The weighing balance will show different readings of the same object if an object is measured from a different portion of the world. Gravity at the pole is 9.8 m/s^2, while it is just 9.7 m/s^2 near the equator. Despite the equator and pole, the impact of gravity is also lessened by the height. You will weigh less at the top of Mount Everest than at sea level or on the surface of the earth. Apart from all these, the theory of Gravitation accounts for all three possible spaces: at the surface, at depth, and in height. The spinning of the earth also negligibly alters the magnitude of gravity. Now If you introduce the concept of density to elucidate these variations, then that will be truly frustrating.

correct

• Projectile

Any object thrown into the earth’s atmosphere is referred to as a projectile. Whether your drop a stone from the top of the building or project it from the ground making some angle with the ground, it always follows a parabolic path. The reason is quite obvious, in essence, gravity. As we have discussed earlier that the force of gravity is a vector quantity, whose direction is always fixated to the center of the object. Mass of 3 kg (say apples) attract the earth with the same force as the Earth attracts the apples; however, the acceleration is quite low in the case of the earth, since Earth’s mass is unavoidably huge than apples. The direction of gravity is independent of the shape of an object. That means, neither flat earth nor round earth will attract the object somewhere else except their center. Geometrically, the direction of gravity is nearly identical in all parts of the globe. But that doesn’t turn out to be the case on flat Earth. We are attached to the surface of the earth — round or flat matters not. In flat earth geometry, the direction of gravity will be notably changing as one approaches from the center to the outskirts. The direction of gravity will not only be downward but also sideways pull.

projectile
Parabolic trajectory of a projectile
sidewaysdownways

Nonetheless, the projectile motion will also go in alignment in the flat Earth but will not obey anything that we get to see on the Earth. An object projected straight up in the air will curve down and backward toward the disc’s center. Furthermore, that stone wouldn’t reach nearly as high or far as the stone thrown up at the edge, where gravity’s downward pull is practically or rather mathematically zero. In our blue and green globe, we never have observed projectile motion like this so far.

• Stability of Water

The gravitational field is directly associated with masses of objects. It is inconsiderate to think that gravitational force between two lighter bodies is nearly equal to that of between planets. Earth has different layers: crust, mantle, and core. These layers contain heavy elements. Earth’s mass is 6 × 10^24 kg. This mass is capable of generating a remarkable Gravitational field. Meanwhile, the ball’s mass is inexplicably small relative to the earth — thus resulting annoyingly less Gravitational field. And this is why water doesn’t get settled in a ball but the Earth. For conformity, repeat the same experiment with something as massive as Earth rather than a tiny ball.

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• Tropism

There are more trees on Earth than stars in the Milky way galaxy. The movement of plant or plant parts towards or away from an Earth is called Geotropism. Towards Earth refers to as positive Geotropism, while away from Earth refers to as negative Geotropism. Because gravity always acts towards the disc’s center, the gravity’s impact can change as one moves away from the center, directing to sideways pull. Since most trees in the forest possess negative Geotropism, the trees must have to grow sideways making sharp angles to the ground as one moves farther from the center. However, we have never encountered such kind of Forests, not even in the Amazon rainforest.

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2 . ANTARCTICA 

In most of countries, there are private safe areas where local civilians are not allowed to explore. Those areas are mostly, the strictest, only for militaries. For example, the Cantonment areas. Luckily, Antarctica is nothing like that. Set your luggage ready and go on a holiday/vacation trip to Antarctica. What’s better than empirical evidence? Besides these, no rich people are interested in investing their millions and billions in taking care of an ice wall. Space agencies will be in no way benefitted from guarding those imaginary ice walls.

3. Edge 

 If Earth actually is flat, then one expects to see at least an edge. Nowhere on the Earth, we will get edges.

4. EARTH ROTATION

The most common question of flat Earthers is that if Earth is rotating, then why isn’t everything flying away from us? Why aren’t we feeling dizzy? How could everything stick to a ball spinning at a thousand miles per hour?


• Earth is not still

Earth rotates on its axis and orbits around the sun as well every 24 hours. This is just a single spin within a day.

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Instead of employing rotational velocity to describe the spinning of the earth, flat Earthers often relate it with instantaneous liner tangential velocity, thereby they get the pretty big number of four digits. Earth is spinning at a constant speed as everything around us does. Because of this constant speed and the force of gravity, we can’t feel the Earth’s spinning. However, if the Earth speeds up much faster then the rate of spinning will be stronger than gravity holding us down, resulting in the actual sensation of Earth’s spin. Even though airplane flies more than half of the speed of Earth’s spin (540+ miles per hour), we can’t feel airplanes flying as long as airplanes and we keep on flying at a constant speed.

• Astronomical Phenomena

The heliocentric model and Kepler’s law of planetary motion are able to elucidate entire astronomical phenomena with wonderful accuracy. The Heliocentric model suggests that every planet rotates around the sun.

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Heliocentric model
kepler's laws

★ Day and night

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Since the Earth is rotating, the portion facing the sun experiences day while the other one experiences night. The discrepancy in temperature of day and night is due to the rotation of earth rather than due to moonlight is cold. We can even explain this cycle in flat Earth; assuming the sun above the Earth. This can’t be universal though. If the sun is above the earth, the day and night cycle must be the same in every part of the Earth as the sun has a pretty massive amount of light energy to lit up the entire flat Earth. Earth takes around 365 days to complete one revolution around the sun which is known as a year, but the flat Earthers can’t come up with the concept of year in a scientific manner.

The Earth doesn’t sit straight up. It actually tilts. The differing length of night and day in different months is also explained by rotational tilt. The flat Earthers theory never could answer this astronomical phenomena.

★Seasons :

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 The Earth spins on an axis that is tilted 23.5° from Vertical. This is one of the major cause of season. The seasons of norther hemisphere varies from southern hemisphere. Northern hemisphere sees different portion of sky and collection of stars than southern hemisphere. Because of the phenomena called Coriolis effect, the rotating masses like storms rotate in one direction in the Northern hemisphere and other direction in the southern hemisphere. Flat Earthers may explain seasons with visualizing sun coming closer in summer and farther in winter. This doesn’t stand universal again.

This can’t explain the variability of seasons in two hemispheres. If Earth is flat, then how is it possible to experience summer in Northern hemisphere and winter in southern hemisphere? This doesn’t even suit well with Coriolis effect. This principle can’t explain varying direction of rotation of storms in different hemispheres. According to flat Earth model, the skies and collection of star must be same for entire world but this is not the case. If one comes up with mechanism that the sun moves around the Earth causing day, night, change in season, then this is very poor science.

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 Geocentric model was replaced by Heliocentric model over the centuries ago. It took several decades for scientists to prove Earth rotates around the sun. What’s the point of replacing Geocentric model with Heliocentric model ?

Eclipses : 

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Using our modern astronomy, we can predict the exact spot and exact time and exact day for an eclipses with higher precision. The flat Earth can’t show up with true mathematical and scientific conclusion behind this.

★Tides :

Earth rotates around the sun while Moon being natural satellite rotates around the Earth. The rotation as well as Gravitational force between Earth and moon is responsible for tide formation.

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 Basically, tides are the periodic rise and fall of sea level at particular place. The Earth’s portion facing moon experiences stronger gravitational pull towards the moon as compared to Earth’s centre. So, this portion is pulled away from centre, creating a bulge, ultimately increasing sea level and causing high tide. Likewise, Opposite portion of Earth which is facing away from moon experiences weaker gravitational force of moon in comparison to it’s centre. Hence, Opposite part pulled away from centre, resulting high tides as well there too. In addition to this, the places in between two high tides, where sea level drops experience low tides.


Sun is responsible for causation of tide too. The biggest contribution is by moon. Moon exerts 2.2 times more power on tides than sun does. Even we as well as the object around us face moon too, but we aren’t experiencing any such phenomena. The Science behind this quite obvious. Since we and object around us stick to the ground, but oceans don’t. Moreover, oceans are massive and can generate enormous amount of gravitational field than we do.


Flat Earther’s splashing of water concepts is unable to hold the meaning of high tides and low tides.


5. RIVERS CAN’T FLOW UPHILL:

Nowhere in the universe, it has been marked right and left. Unless you take something as the frame of reference, there will be no up, down, front, behind, etc in space. Moreover, the direction is determined by the spin of a heavenly body.

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6. CURVATURE :


If you stand on a seashore, and try to watch a boat sail away, after a while, it will disappear from view. The bottom of the boat will disappear before top when it crosses horizon line. This is what we call Bedford level experiment.

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 This proves that the Earth is round and has curvature. If the Earth is flat, then the boat will not disappear from view after crossing the horizon line or whatsoever else.

7 . UNIVERSE VASTNESS

This universe is way more bigger than one can imagine. Universe vastness is indescribable. Universe is continually expanding. Scientists found that the universe is at least 250 times larger than the observable universe, or at least 7 trillion light-years across.
So, by considering Earth only, we can’t say — Earth is the centre of our universe. Not even our Milky way galaxy is the centre of the universe.

Conclusion :  

The Earth is globe. At a basic level, many people conceptualize planet as a place having land and surface to walk around. Gas Giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) don’t have surface;yet, they are considered planets. The flat Earthers are often convinced with social media platforms. They don’t accept the space images captured by space agencies. The explanation of flat Earthers don’t go along with mathematical and scientific principles. They always come up with blind Faith which is a complete lack of an intellectual integrity. Science is not about dogma and doctrine but about understanding the actual phenomena behind every mechanism.

–Sudip Karn

References

1. Tech Insider YouTube Channel

2. “What if” book.

3. Professor Dave Explains YouTube Channel

4. Nasa Science YouTube Channel

5. Nat Geo YouTube Channel

6. Wikipedia Flat-Earth Theory


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